The 13.2 m (43 ft) external diameter, double deck Istanbul Strait Road Tube Crossing is one of the most challenging underwater tunnel projects in the world. Subjected to 11 bars of hydrostatic pressure, variable geology, and being in a very active seismic area, the execution of the project required innovative solutions, sophisticated construction techniques and prudent risk management approach. The 5 km (3.1 mile) tunnel consists of a 3.4-km (2.2-mile) tunnel boring machine- (TBM) bored tunnel, 1 km (0.62 mile) twin NATM tunnels and cut-and-cover sections. The project is being delivered in a build-operate-transfer (BOT) contract in a public-private partnership. The technical challenges, coupled with financial and commercial risks required the implementation of sophisticated risk management tactics including the provision of independent design verification. The project was opened to traffic on December 20, 2016, four months ahead of schedule.. This article presents the technical challenges of the project from the design, construction, and risk management aspects..