The Australian Bureau of Statistics and the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics publish data for a range of industries, allowing a measure of performance to be quantified, called multifactor productivity (MFP), and allowing performance between industries to be compared on a consistent basis. At the time of writing, the last released data was for 2011-2012. For Australia, the plot of mining industry productivity and a basket of the 12 most significant industries in Australia’s economy (including mining) are shown in Fig. 1. For the United States, mining and petroleum and all manufacturing productivity are also displayed in Fig. 1.