In recent years, Germany has increased its share of electricity production powered by renewable sources. It now has the largest capacity of wind power installations in Europe and is able to produce 7.5 GW within its offshore installations and 53.3 GW onshore (German Environment Agency, 2020). Furthermore, solar- and wind-powered energy generation in Germany accounted for 33.6 percent in 2019, which is an increase of more than 250 percent over the past 10 years (Fig. 1). This arises from the efforts Germany has allocated to achieve the energy transition (Engergiewende) as a major goal, reduce the country’s dependency on fossil and nuclear fuels and rely on renewable sources instead.
Although the renewable shares of electricity production have increased, the country’s energy generation still relies on an energy-mix system consisting of 40 percent fossil fuels. This is due to the intermittent and nonprogrammable characteristics of natural sources, which are entirely dependent on meteorological conditions.