Ventilation monitoring and control in mines are becoming an integral part of day-to-day activity for maintaining the health and safety of miners. This paper evaluates potential real-time monitoring solutions for detecting and reducing diesel particulate matter (DPM), mine fires and dust in situ and examines the state-of-the-art use of ventilation monitoring and control in underground mines for detecting and reducing air contaminants to acceptable regulatory limits. In this study, relevant documents, including research papers, trade publications and manufacturer website information, are reviewed to identify research gaps. This paper also includes evaluations of contemporary sensors (airflow, gas, dust and silica), control system and software technologies, data transport systems, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), ventilation network simulators and control devices to identify potential health and safety research gaps. Examples of some mines in Canada, Australia and the United States that have been using ventilation monitoring and controls are included as well. Overall, this review identifies multiple challenges and research gaps in applying mine monitoring and control systems that could be the focus of future research, offering potential improvements to miner safety and health and financial benefits.