May 2020
Volume 72    Issue 5

Numerical analysis of a rock bolt load indicator washer neglecting the stress relaxation effect

Kabwe, Eugie


The effective employment of a pretensioned bolt within support structures requires an appropriate installation tension as a result of sufficient bolt head/nut preload. In this paper, a load indicator washer (LIW) able to withstand an assigned static loading as well as provide an appropriate pretension is presented. The different LIW breadths are numerically analyzed with ABAQUS finite-element code to estimate deformation when a designated 60 kN preload is applied. The numerical simulation employs the bilinear isotropic hardening constitutive law governed by the von Mises yield criterion. The simulation also considers the nominal temperature of the nut-LIW-rock bolt connection. Therefore, long-term relaxation effect on bolt pretension as a result of stress relaxation is neglected. The compressive force required to achieve the LIW predetermined deformation is the bolt pretension. It is drawn from the simulation results that LIWs with thicknesses of 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 mm are completely flattened when subjected to 28, 42.5, 65, 76 and 88 kN preloads, respectively.


Full-text paper:
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2020) 37:691–700,


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