Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019) 36:839–849, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-0068-4
The amount of energy used to break rock is of interest in mine-to-mill operations to minimize energy consumption during blasting at the mine site and comminution at the processing plant. In this research, a direct energy measurement was made using high-velocity impact to cause breakage of long granite cores, and to study the energy dissipation along the entire bar length. The results show the formation of three zones of damage — fragmentation, fracture and elastic — that have been characterized in 3D using X-ray tomography. The fragmentation zone of the granite bars was studied in detail to describe the particle size distribution and the particle shape characteristics. The experimental energy dissipation in the fragmentation zone was found to be in close agreement with the expected energy calculated from the Bond work index (BWI) equation  when the anisotropic granite particles in the fragmentation zone are defined by length rather than by sieve size. The results increase our understanding of rock breakage and energy consumption and may find future applications in mine-to-mill operations.