After industrial sand has been mined and processed, the finished product is typically loaded into small bags of 45 kg (100 lb) or less, large bulk bags of 454 to 1,361 kg (1,000 to 3,000 lb), or vehicles such as trucks or trains for transport to end users. As the sand is being transferred and loaded, dust can be released into the work environment, potentially exposing workers to respirable crystalline silica. A number of control technologies have been developed and utilized in an effort to reduce dust liberation during loading operations. For bulk loading into trucks or trains, the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) evaluated one of these technologies, the Dust Suppression Hopper (DSH), at two industrial sand processing plants. Results from these case studies show that the DSH reduced airborne respirable dust levels by 39 to 88 percent, depending upon the product size being loaded.