The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is conducting research on jackleg use and related accidents in underground metal mines. This paper provides an analysis and overview of jackleg drill usage, accidents, operational characteristics and alternatives, based on information from injury reports, legacy research, stakeholder input and published literature. The results indicate that jackleg drills are involved in more groundfall accidents in underground metal mines than any other drill, and jackleg-drill-related injuries are most prevalent at the face in the course of installing initial ground support. Practical mechanized alternatives to jackleg drills for drilling and bolting under incomplete support in narrow underground openings have not yet been realized. Small, versatile mechanized bolting equipment needs to be developed to address jackleg-drill-related accidents and improve safety at mines where jackleg drills are being used.