November 2003
Volume 55    Issue 11

Cliffs and Associates' Circored iron plant

Mining Engineering , 2003, Vol. 55, No. 11, pp. 26-30
Elmquist, S.A.; Kipfstuhl, L.C.; Dowling, E.C.

The Cliffs and Associates Ltd. (CAL) Circored Plant is located in the country of Trinidad and Tobago (Figs. 1 and 2). The 500-kt/a (490,000-long ton/year) first-of-its-kind plant was conceptualized in 1995, with construction starting in 1996. Numerous equipment design issues and plant issues resulted in the plant not achieving commercial production until March of 2001. The original owners were Cleveland-Cliffs Inc., Lurgi Metallurgie and LTV Steel Co. In November 2001, Cleveland-Cliffs and Lurgi Metallurgie acquired LTV Steel’s ownership rights in CAL.

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