Enterprise unmanned traffic management (E-UTM) is a holistic system concept evolving from technological developments in radio frequency (RF), where dynamic tracking can be added into current and emerging platforms. This is done through inexpensive RF sensors capable of real-time and cooperative, non-GPS tracking enabling digital visualization of assets, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS). The RF sensors are low in size, weight and power (SWaP), creating efficiencies in energy and material consumption while transmitting positions in real time and at long ranges. Multiple UAS and other unmanned vehicles can be visualized for risk mitigation in operations, thus enabling mine management to have better decision-making capabilities in the current and future mosaic of mine operations.
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2022) 39:2365–2378, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-022-00687-w