March 2023
Volume 75    Issue 3

Evaluation of underground refuge alternatives and explosion survivability: A review

Karadeniz, Kutay E.; Nowak, Samuel; Guner, Dogukan; Sherizadeh, Taghi


Underground mining environments bring with them occupational health and safety issues with some severe dangers, such as mine explosions. During such events, miners may escape using main access openings or find a safe haven like a refuge alternative (RA) to wait and be rescued and evacuated to the surface. In this paper, RAs are explained with their early and current applications. A classification as permanent and portable is detailed, depending on conditions and abilities. This classification is followed by the utilization and survivability of RAs with the requirements and recommendations of the main mining countries. Based on the utilization and survivability constraints, basic human requirements, waiting for a rescue team, and the required physical specifications of RAs during the events are analyzed in detail for various countries with their regulations. Among these, the specification of resistance to explosion is discussed in particular, and studies in the literature are examined in terms of structural deformation.

Full-text paper:
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2022) 39:2311–2331,


Follow these easy steps if you are an SME member:
  • Go to . Sign in with your email address and password.
  • Hover your mouse over “Publications and Resources” in the top banner. Click on “Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (MME) Journal” in the pull-down menu.
  • Scroll down and click on the “Read the MME Journal Online” button, which will take you to the Springer site as an SME member who is eligible for free access. (To see published papers on the Springer site, click on “Browse Volumes & Issues” in the blue banner.)
If you are not an SME member, go to for paid access. Or join SME at