March 2023
Volume 75    Issue 3

A rapid review of collision avoidance and warning technologies for mining haul trucks

Hrica, Jonathan K.; Bellanca, Jennica L.; Carr, Jacob L.; Homer, John; Stabryla, Kathleen


Given the recent focus on powered haulage incidents within the U.S. mining sector, an appraisal of collision avoidance/warning systems (CXSs) through the lens of the research literature is timely. This paper aims to evaluate the maturity of CXS technology through the application of a technology readiness assessment (TRA) to research literature identified by systematic search methods. Results indicate that much of the evidence for CXS performance is at lower levels of maturity: that is, components and prototypes tested in a laboratory and in relevant environments. Less evidence exists for CXS performance at higher levels of maturity — that is, systems evaluated within operational environments — despite the existence of commercial products in the marketplace. This lack of evidence at higher maturity levels within the scientific literature highlights the need for more peer-reviewed research to evaluate CXS technologies. Additionally, results of the review reveal that most of the literature relevant to CXS technologies is focused on vehicle-to-vehicle interactions, which contrasts with haul truck fatal accident statistics that indicate most are due to vehicle-to-environment interactions, such as traveling through a berm. Lastly, the relatively small number and segmented nature of relevant studies suggest there is a need for more incremental research that would better facilitate the improvement of CXS technologies. This progression could be achieved through continued long-term interest and support for CXS technology research.

Full-text paper:
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2022) 39:1357–1389,


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