Steel slag is an industrial byproduct of steelmaking that is mainly composed of calcium, iron, silicon and magnesium. In addition, depending on the different raw materials entering the furnace, steel slag contains a certain amount of vanadium that is the main source of vanadium production, accounting for 69 percent of the species of the total vanadium raw material . From experience, the production of one ton of steel will generate 1.0 to 1.5 tons of steel slag . However, the utilization efficiency of steel slag is less than 30 percent, and a large amount of steel slag is identified as waste and stacked in tailings. The random stacking of steel slag not only wastes large amounts of limited steel and land resources but also exerts pressure on the environment , making it imperative to research the effective utilization of steel slag and recycling of metal resources.
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2022) 39:733–748, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-022-00552-w