Mill scale is an oxide waste product of steel mills, containing around 70 percent iron and other allied impurities. In the present context, a dynamic prototype counter-current reactor (CCR) was used for the experimentation and simulation of a particle bed using the discrete element method (DEM). Mill scale was pulverized to ASTM mesh range 140 (106 μm)/+ 270 (53 μm) and oxidized in a CCR to make a single oxide Fe2O3 phase by maintaining the required thermodynamic conditions, such as pure oxygen at 1,100 °C. This oxidized powder was then subjected to a reduction reaction in the CCR, with gas mixture (H2:N2) ratio of 1:4 at 875±5 °C for filling degree, fd , and reactor revolution, ω, ranging from 5.38 to 16.14 percent and 2 to 5 rpm, respectively. A creeping fluid flow condition (Re < 1) and natural heat convection (Gr/Re2 >> 1) were maintained during the solid–gas reaction, and the particle-bed behavior was quantified by Froude number for the optimum operating window. The simulation was validated with the experimental results of reactor reaction product by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images.
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2022) 39:139–152, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-021-00516-6