General Kinnematics
September 2021
Volume 73    Issue 9

Rock fragmentation size distribution prediction and blasting parameter optimization based on the muck-pile model

Miao, Yusong; Zhang, Yiping; Wu, Di; Li, Kebin; Yan, Xianrong; Lin, Jie


Rock fragmentation has been a concern in hard-rock mining for the mining industry. Rock fragmentation distribution is an important index to measure the blasting effect. It not only affects the cost of drilling and blasting, but also affects the efficiency of subsequent operations, such as loading, transportation and secondary crushing.
  Experiments show that blasting energy can be transferred more efficiently when the explosion wave impedance and rock wave impedance are in the best matching state. Traditional statistical methods of rock fragmentation size analysis are mainly based on manual measurement, but they are labor intensive, offer low efficiency and are susceptible to site conditions. Moreover, the statistical results are not sufficiently accurate. Inadequate unit consumption of explosive and stemming height, faulty drilling, unreasonable borehole density coefficient due to poor previous blast, mismatched explosive with rock acoustic impedance are the main factors affecting the blasting parameters. Furthermore, unknown geological conditions, such as original joint, weak seams, fissure and water have been identified as the major factors in rock fragmentation size distribution in opencast mines.
  Due to the mismatching of explosive and rock wave impedance, high boulder yield often occurs, which affects the blasting effect. In this study, methods of measuring rock wave impedance, rock strength point loading, and detonation wave velocity were used to obtain more accurate input parameters.

Full-text paper:
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2021) 38:1071–1080,


Follow these easy steps if you are an SME member:
  • Go to . Sign in with your email address and password.
  • Hover your mouse over “Publications and Resourcesâ€� in the top banner. Click on “Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (MME) Journalâ€� in the pull-down menu.
  • Scroll down and click on the “Read the MME Journal Onlineâ€� button, which will take you to the Springer site as an SME member who is eligible for free access. (To see published papers on the Springer site, click on “Browse Volumes & Issuesâ€� in the blue banner.)
If you are not an SME member, go to for paid access. Or join SME at