In this study, the oxygen-rich bath smelting process of copper dross was simulated using Factsage software. It was found that the two-step simulation results agreed better with the industrial data, especially in the speiss. Bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) contents in the speiss by two-step simulation differed from the industrial data by 0.6, 0.8, 2.6, 7.2 and 8.6 weight percent, respectively. The two-step simulation results indicate that the speiss partitioning of Sb, As and Cu increased from 60.1, 32.3 and 27.5 percent to 81.6, 67.8 and 47.2 percent, respectively, with the smelting temperature increasing from 1,050 to 1,250 °C, while the metal partitioning of Sb and Cu increased from 0 and 2.7 percent to 15.2 and 13.3 percent, respectively, with the separation temperature increasing from 400 to 700 °C.
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2021) 38:233–241, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-020-00329-z