Scale physical models, constructed according to the principle of similarity theory, are widely used to simulate the mining disturbances to surrounding strata and to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented ground-control techniques. This technique has also been used for studying mining-induced surface and subsurface subsidence. The movements of the observation points installed on the physical model at different mining stages are currently measured using a total station, which is time consuming and inaccurate, especially on small-scale models.
A photogrammetry-based measurement system has been developed. During a physical modeling process, photographs of the model can be taken during the simulation process, reducing survey time from hours to a few seconds. A program called Photogrammetry Analysis for Physical Modeling of Mine Subsidence Process (PAPMMSP), developed based on photogrammetric principle, is used to quickly identify the installed observation points and accurately determine their coordinates. The measurement accuracy is well under the sub-millimeter level — a highly important advantage as any measurement errors in coordinates are magnified by the model dimension scale (commonly 20 to 400). A physical modeling case of subsurface strata movements and deformations associated with longwall mining operations is presented to demonstrate the functions and capabilities of the developed photogrammetry program.
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2020) 37:1461–1473, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-020-00284-9